A form of sales promotion, mainly used in the consumer market, that awards something of value to winners based on skills they demonstrate compared to other consumers.

Descriptive Market Research

Generally considered the most popular form of market research, this research method has the objective of providing an accurate description for something that is occurring (e.g., monthly sales volume, customer preference).

Exploratory Market Research

Marketing research method that uses a less structured and often less scientific approach to discover general information about a topic that is not well understood by the marketer.

Impulse Purchasing

Represents customer purchase decisions that result in a customer making unplanned purchases often due to marketer’s promotions (e.g., coupons, in-store demonstrations) or product placement strategies (e.g., product located at checkout lane).


A form of promotional price adjustment that offers a product at a price considered to be lower than the normal selling price such as temporary sale pricing and lower pricing intended to remove extra inventory.

Minor Re-Purchase Decision

Type of consumer purchase decision in which purchases are routine and often the consumer purchases the same product without consideration for other product or brand options.

Research Validity

A concept related to carrying out research that is concerned with whether the research is really measuring what it claims to be measuring.

Target Marketing

A strategic approach in which an organization attempts to get the most from its resources by following a planned procedure for identifying customers who possess the greatest potential to respond to the marketer’s efforts and help the marketer meet objectives.


The internal processing of stimuli (e.g., advertisements) that shapes how a person sees themselves and the world they live in.

Reseller Network

The collection of resellers such as retailer, wholesalers and industrial distributors, who provide services that assist the marketer in reaching their final customer.